A set of routines that calculate time-domain loads induced by surface ice on offshore substructures, for use with wind turbine aeroelastic simulation codes, including FAST.

by Tim McCoy
DNV KEMA Renewables, Inc. (DNV GL)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) awarded DNV GL a project to create a model for interaction of bottom-fixed offshore wind turbines with surface ice for use with common simulation tools. The IceFloe module, which conforms to the standards of the FAST Modularization Framework, was created from this project.

The IceFloe module includes the option to apply loads from several models (listed in table below) to a monopole structure or a multi-leg structure of either three or four legs of the same diameter. For multi-leg support structures, the ice loads are calculated independently for each leg; however factors based on sheltering of one leg by another are also used, which can be automatically applied or user specified. The project's final technical report provides more details.

Ice Load Model in IceFloe Source
Continuous random crushing ISO 19906, Karna
Intermittent crushing per ISO ISO 19906
Lock-in crushing per ISO ISO 19906
Lock-in crushing per IEC IEC 61400-3, Korzhavin
Coupled crushing Määtänen
Flexural failure per ISO ISO 19906, Croasdale
Flexural failure per IEC IEC 61400-3, Ralston


You may download the following files from our server:

  • Ice Load Project Final Technical Report (8.8 MB, 30-Oct-2014)

    This document is the final technical report on the DOE project that developed IceFloe. It contains a theory appendix and user manual. Please refer to it for help in understanding how IceFloe works.

  • IceFloe Archive (10.2 MB, v1.00.00, 30-Oct-2014)

    This is a zip file containing the IceFloe source code; source code for interfaces to FAST, HAWC2, ADAMS, and Bladed; certification/regression test; and documentation. It also includes binary files, which were created with Intel® Visual Fortran Compiler XE [IA-32].

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NWTC Information Portal (IceFloe). Last modified 04-August-2016 ; Accessed 05-April-2020